1907-1910 Faculty Minutes: He confessed to have thrown a pole through the window but denied having thrown a stone.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1907-1910. A digitized copy will soon be available at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection. When it is uploaded, you will find it at http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/search/collection/mvsminutes.

Oct. 14, 1907
A report from the com. appointed to take into consideration the advisability of forming a public Glee Club, was given. On account of (1) Insufficient talent, (2) the Time and (3) Expense, the report was adverse.

Nov. 25, 1907
It is reported that large quantities of butter are taken from the dining room, by the students.
It is thought that if each table were dismissed as they finish the meal and the teacher in charge of the table remain until all are done that this useless waste of butter could be avoided.
This matter will come up at the next meeting of the faculty, in the mean time the members will give this subject attention.

Dec. 10, 1907
“In view of the fact that Miss Sarah H. Gilbert is taking a leave of absence to take a trip around the world; Dr. Byerly read the following resolutions:
“Miss Sarah H. Gilbert, long a member of our Faculty, meets with us this evening for the last time before entering upon a few months vacation.
We are very sorry, we assure her, for the time to be deprived of her presence among us, – of her faithful conscientious efficient work in the class room, of her discreet and helpful management of lady students in hall and elsewhere, of her wise counsel in meetings of the Faculty, and especially of her genial companionship in our Normal social circle. We will miss her in every relation in which she stood to ourselves and to the school.
But we are glad that she is taking a well merited vacation, that she is to be relieved for a much longer period than usual of the tiresome monotonous wearing routine of the teacher’s life. That she in prospect [sic] of a season of extensive travel abroad.
May the good Providence that watches over all protect and guide her by sea and by land, – bid the winds flow softly, the waves roll gently, the ship rock quietly, the sun shine with genial ray; may the nations know that not an Ex-president, not a President in prospect, not a secretary of War, but one of the Queens of these United States of America is this time making a tour of the world, and open wide for her the doors of the palace, of Cathedral, of gallery, of halls of learning and of legislature; make accessible to her every place of interest: – in short may her trip around the world be restful, full of interest of profit and of pleasure, abounding and the grand in nature [sic] and in art, affording too to her a large and intimate acquaintance with the varied workings of human life the world around, so that she may come back like Augustus of old ladened with the spoils of the East and give to us to see with her eyes and hear with her ears the glorious things of this grand old world of ours.
We send her off with our blessing, we will follow her day by day with interest, our best wishes and our warmest prayers, and we promise her upon her return a glad, a right royal welcome to our Normal home and her former line of work among us.”

Feb. 11, 1908
Miss Hufford was reported for cooking in her closet – She rec. 20 dem. She was reported for snow-balling in Science Hall – She rec. 5 additional dem. for this offense.

Feb. 11, 1908
Dr. Byerly then offered the following resolutions:
Again the death angel has visited our Normal household and carried off on of our number, Mrs. Cora Bitner.
We feel that each one of us has sustained a great loss in the death of a most estimable woman, whom to know was to love and esteem, whom for one to love and esteem was to be wooed to a better, higher, purer, nobler life.
Here below there is a vacancy in the circle, there is a wound in the heart; tears fill the eye, love wanders inconsolable; there is a hush upon the voice of music; there above a new form appears, a new voice is heard, a new song trembles upon the heavenly air. A new hand is raised to beckon us to the skies. The sorrow of earth is assuaged by the touch of heaven.
We sympathize most feelingly with the bereaved husband and the orphaned children, and sincerely hope that the thought of the heavenly joys which are hers may be a healing balm for the earthly sorrows that are theirs.”

April 6, 1908
Capt. Paul Jones of the Salvation Army has asked for a donation. Mr. Lansinger and Miss Gherst were appointed a committee to inquire into the character of Capt. Paul Jones.

April 15, 1908
Mr. Irvin Snyder was called before the com. charged with throwing a stone through a window. He confessed to have thrown a pole through the window but denied having thrown a stone.

June 22, 1908
Ladies of the faculty should always use the front door when coming in late at night. Do not use the lower door or the door on the gentlemen’s side.

June 25, 1908
Mr. Simons reported Mr. Wm. Weigler for taking his coat off during the entertainment on Mon. eve. And was impudent and put it on very slowly. No action taken.

Sept. 14, 1908
Miss Kath. Weidle is supposed to be home-sick. Provision has been made for a cure.

Jan. 18, 1909
The Prin. inquired about the boarding.
Miss Landes thinks the bolona [sic] is not relished by many and Miss Gilbert thinks the money expended for Sardines could be more profitably spent for something that all would eat.

January 25, 1909
Mr. Arthur Greenleaf has been tampering with the electric lights in his room by attaching a wire to the box above and making two additional lights in his room. Mr. Neary is an electrician and needs watching.

Feb. 23, 1909
Prin. asked about the food and service in the dining room. the following suggest. were made: –
1. Beef-loaf recently served was not well cooked.
2. The dishes are not always washed clean.
3. The Hamburgh steak was tainted.
4. Oysters were not good and not served in sufficient quantities.
5. The pumpkin pie was not good on one occasion.

Mar. 1, 1909
Dining Room. –
1. Service, as a rule, is good.
2. Food good, sometimes when hot cakes are served, there are not enough at some of the tables.
Apr. 12, 1909
It was stated in regard to the dining room, that there is not good service in the east annex. Two girls have five tables. (2) The corn beef is not good – (3) The same was said of the soup. (4) Bread and cakes are good. (5) Cold beef-loaf is a little doubtful – (6) Rice and Peas are not cooked enough. (7) And the fish is improved.

April 26, 1909
Discipline Committee.
The committee of gentlemen on discipline met in the public office immediately after supper. Messers. Lyte, Byerly, Hull, Bitner, Roddy, Straughn, Harbold, Hunter, Cooper and Lansinger were present.
The object of the meeting was stated by Mr. Bitner. He said that Messers. Arthur, Witmyer, Shelly, Boger, Pruitt, Quail, Ober, Grice, Griffiths and Geo. Cooper had taken Messers. Clayton D. Lingle and Ira Brinser down to the Little Conestoga and Hazed them.
Mr. Lingle was called before the committee first and said: that some boys came to his room on Friday evening April 23 about 10:30 or 11 o’clock. He jumped out of the window and went into a room on the floor below. They followed him and compelled him to come out of a closet where he had concealed himself and to go with them. They were masked and tied his hands behind his back and blindfolded him. They led him out of the building and through the town down to the Little Conestoga. On the way he was tripped, and thrown down while his hands were tied and rudely thrown over the fences. At the Conestoga he was made do many things for their amusement and while doing so was beaten with clubs or sticks and kicked. He was made to climb a tree and struck and kick [sic] when he did so. They had a pistol along which was fired off to frighten them. At the conclusion of the insults he was made stand [sic] up, put his hand on his heart and solemnly promise not to divulge any of the things he was made to do, nor tell who did it. He was then left to find his way back home alone. On Sunday evening following, he was called into the room of Messers. Boger and Witmeyer and threatened that if he should tell how he was treated, or give the names of the those who did it: the Black-Hand Society would take care of his case.
Mr. Ira Brinser was called in and his testimony corroborated the statements made by Mr. Lingle. He was more cruelly treated than Mr. Lingle.
The leaders in this affair were:
1. Clifton Arthur, who compelled Mr. Lingle to come out of the closet by pointing his finger or pistol toward him and counting three.
2. Howard Whitmeyer who tied the hands behind their backs and who struck Mr. Hartman in the face while making an out-cry in a hazing that occurred during the first week of school.
3. Russell Shelly who helped to take the boys from their rooms.
4. John Boger who threatened the persecuted boys on Sunday evening and who forced the door in on Friday evening.
5. David Pruitt who administered the oath of secrecy at the Conestoga and gave some of the commands during the insults.
Those who were apparently less guilty were:-
Harper Quail –
Birch Ober.
Geo. Cooper
Edwin Griffiths –
James Grice
All these persons were seen except Messers. Ober, Cooper and Griffiths.
The punishment was fixt as follows: –
The leaders are to receive 30 dem. their parents written to. Must sign a pledge not to angage in hazing while connected with the institution, nor to do any one any harm and pay a fine of 50 cents each.
The others receive the same punishmetn except they receive 15 demerits instead of 30.
This punishment was agreed to by all of the committee except two. Messers Hull and Harbold voting in the negative.
Besides this Mr. Pruitt and Walter Gilbert were seen in the rear of the ladies’ building on the evening of April 18 about 10:30 Sunday evening. (Mr. Pruitt said they were there watching the servant girls going to bed).
Mr. Pruitt and Mr. Gilbert each received 5 dem. for this offense.

May 19, 1909
Dining Room: –
Food – Not enough in the annex.
Corn [?] sometimes not good.
Fried head not eaten – better be made into head puddings.
Mackaroni (sic) & cheese not relished.
Service. – Waitresses leave the dining room too soon.

June 21, 1909
Misses Eliz. Hostetter, Ida Kafroth, Minni West and Cunence Beard were reported writing unnecessary if not improper things on their Final Examination. A vote of censure was passed upon these.

Sept. 13, 1909
Dining Room: –
It is thought that when hot cakes are served, head should also be served.

Sept. 27, 1909
Messers Quail & Walton violated the rules by speaking to ladies before 4 o’clock. Prin. will speak to them.

Oct. 4, 1909
Miss Nissley and David Witmer are sick at their homes. A number of students on the ladies’ side have colds supposed to have been contracted on account of the buildings being too cold…
Dining Room: –
Some of the boys are extravagant with the sugar and butter.

October 19, 1909
Trip to Washington
Teachers going are – Misses Rice, Goodenough, Adams accompanied by Miss Stephens – Mr. Grove
The following rules were stated: –
1. Not to attend theatres at night.
2. Girls not be left alone.
3. Ladies not to visit friends in Washington.
4. If friends join the party there they must get permission.
5. No dancing at the hotels.
6. Must not be out alone at night.
7. No souvenirs to be taken from the hotels.

Oct. 25, 1909
Dining Room
The potatoes are not always cooked first.

Dec. 7, 1909
Hershey Byerly was reported for shooting beans against the windows in the square.
Mr. Quail was called before the committee because he had 54 dem. and had been seen several times with strange girls in the streets of the village…He was not ready to say that they were respectable. He did not know them well enough to say they were good or bad.

January 24, 1910
Mr. Bolivar wants a diploma from the school – He says he has completed the com. course. He is a good boy on the hall.

Feb. 7, 1910
It is thought that there are a few secrets societies among the students – They are called the “Rex” & “Anti-Rex”. Messers. Lansinger – Straughn and Hull were appointed to investigate the matter.

Feb. 14, 1910
Dining Room. –
Some of the tables are not served with sufficient fish.
The Meat served last Sunday was not good.
The tables are served too frequently with beef-stew.
The corn-beef is not above suspicion.
There seems to be a waste in serving butter the second time.

Feb. 7, 1910
Resolved. – That it is the sense of this committee that no secret organization shall be permitted among the students at this Normal School. (1) Such parent organizations known as college fraternities have, by experience, prove [sic] to be detrimental to the best interests of both students and school when introduced into High Schools, Normal Schools, and Preparatory Schools. (2) Secret organizations, by pledge, necessarily demand more attention from their members than clubs. (3) The parents of many of our students are unalterably opposed to secret organizations, expecially among boys and girls. (4) The students themselves do not fully appreciate the significance and demands of secret societies.
Clubs, not secret in character or intention, may, in the judgment of the faculty, be allowed, provided that such clubs do not generate strife, have worthy aims, and support the authority of the school.”

April 4, 1910
The following ladies are thought to be too much interested in the boys: – Misses Kershner (Nellie), Beal, Beau, Bertolet, Cooper, Beard (Cunence)…
Games in which ladies and gentlemen touch each other must not be played.
Tennis must not be played by the two sexes at the same time except after four o’clock.

June 9, 1910
Case of Mr. Neary: – Mr. Neary left the school about 9:30 p.m. to call to see a lady in the village – When he was returning, about 10.30, he was seized by two men who were lying in wait for him, and four more came up suddenly. He was gagged, bound, and blindfolded, and led out into the country in the vicinity Mr. Glick’s or beyond. There he was stripped of his shoes and stockings, coat and shirts, then bound to a tree both hands and feet. While in this position he was painted with black paint over the chest, back and face. Then an attempt was made to stick green leaves on him. One of the company with a pair of scissors cut off the hair in the front part of the head and on the back part, and rubbed paint over his head. He was left in this condition for about half an hour watched by a sentinel who finally cut the cords that bound his hands and ran. He returned to the school about 2 a.m. and went to the night watchman who assisted him in removing the paint. He reached his room about 3:15 a.m. He supposed the six men were villagers.
There is no clue to the matter.

June 20, 1910
Mr. Parsells had acknowledged that he had smoked in the building, that he had used profane language that he had been with boys breaking doors in the building, that he had met Miss Belts, had thrown glass from the window, had been lying to the committee, had been drinking liquor, had gone to Lanc. without permission, had been burning as light in his room after returning bell without permission, had gotten money from his father under false pretence.
Mr. Parsells was then excused after which a motion was made and seconded to expel him. The motion was carried.

June 30, ’10
The commencement exercises, the final examination, &c. were all marked with quietness and great decorum. This is supposed to be due to several causes, among them the prompt discipline of Mr. Wickert and Miss Belts, as well as campusing and restricting a no. of the ladies.
The propriety of allowing fathers to visit lady’s students’ rooms is doubtful, if done should be accompanied by a lady teacher.

1904-1907 Faculty Minutes: Mr. Knapp was charged with the crime of “Sodomy”

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1904-1907. A digitized copy will soon be available at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection. When it is uploaded, you will find it at http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/search/collection/mvsminutes.

September 14, 1904
No student rooming alone can occupy an outside room. To students using cots in inside rooms mattresses will be furnished but to no others.

Sept. 29, 1904
The Prin. stated that there was a poor family in the village by the name of [?]- and designated Mr. Lansinger to receive all contributions for them, and Mr. Hull was appointed to see that it was judiciously applied.

Oct. 20, 1904
Three girls went to the York County Fair and did not return until the late car. They were seen in Lancaster on the streets and were not behaving themselves properly. The com. of ladies on discipline will meet.

Oct. 26, 1904
The Prin. stated that Miss Anna Bowman ran hastily up to Miss Maud Felty this evening. She will remain on the campus for the present.

Nov. 14, 1904
Students think they are neglected.

January 9, 1905
It was reported that a boy is selling pretzels in the gentleman’s building. This should not be.
How is Julia Snavely doing in class? She is discontented and wants to leave school. She is doing well.

Mar. 27, 1905
All the members were present except those who were absent.

May 29, 1905
Miss Anna Bowman was reported for going to Mr. Longenecker’s on the Blue Rock Road to rest and returned [sic] Hoak’s Hotel where she took the 12 o’clock car for Lanc. returning to her home sometime in the evening. It was not clear that we had jurisdiction over this offense.

Dec. 4, 1905
The Cubans do not keep their rooms clean.

Mar. 8, 1906
Mr. Hastings reported Mr. Markel for taking his cuff buttons. Father will be written to

May 14, 1906
It was stated that Mr. Knapp was charged with the crime of “Sodomy,” and the boys were shunning his society.
Mr. Hosler was called before the com. since he had advised Mr. Knapp to leave the school. Mr. Hosler said he believed that Mr. Knapp was guilty, as he did not deny the charge. Mr. Breimer, who was Mr. Knapp’s chum for two years, prepared the charge.
Mr. Breimer was called in and said he knew what the charge meant and knew that Mr. Knapp was guilty. Some of the com. thought that Mr. Breimer was not clear in his statement and he was called back. Mr. Bitner put the question plain before him and he said Mr. Knapp was guilty of the charge.
Mr. Knapp was to be advised to leave school, without the com. taking any formal action on his case.
Mr. Knapp went to Lanc. and had not returned when the com. adjourned.

June 11, 1906
Miss Elizabeth Myers asked to come out into the village to visit friends, instead of doing so she went to Lanc. and from there to Rocky Springs where she took part in a dance and returned to Lanc. too late for either the car to Mountville or Millersville, and they walked out to Millersville with Miss Longenecker.
It was moved and the motion prevailed, that she be required to leave school after the Final Ex. and not be allowed to return. Her diploma will be sent to her.

June 28, ’06
The Prin. said that there is to be no promiscuous dancing at any time on our grounds or building.

Sept. 3, 1906
It is thought that the students spend too much money at the confectionary stores. The[y] asked how this could be corrected. No satisfactory remedy was suggested. Miss Gilbert thought that if the supper were served later, it would diminish the practice.

Sept. 4, 1906
The following students may need watching:
Mr. Fred. Lan.
”    Hoops.
Miss Louise Sproul.
The Cubans.

Sept. 6, 1906
Students (Cuban) attending the Model school will attend chapel exercises in the Normal.

Sept. 24, 1906
Mr. Fassnacht and others took some new students out after apples to scare them.

Oct. 8, 1906
Principle’s address to Faculty,
…As you may know, the authorities are trying to improve one Method of conducting our business, especially in the household department. From the fact that our Business Manager must transact his business in this office, great care must be exercised by every one not to make the business of the school a public matter…The point I want to make is, the business of the office should not be a public matter. Teachers should so far as possible refrain from becoming acquainted with the business of the school that is not their business. Effort should be made to keep from others and from ourselves knowledge of the business affairs of the school that do not directly concern us. The numbers of students in attendance, the salaries paid, the wages paid our working people, and the students who are working, the price paid for goods &c, &c. Are matters that should not concern us.

Oct. 22, 1906
On Saturday Oct. 13, about 11.15 in the morning Miss Alice Pletcher was called to the telephone by some one in Lanc., who said he was her brother. She was anxious to go to Lanc. to meet him; but the Prin. told her he should come to see her as he did not want her to go to Lanc. alone. The young man came, and in the early afternoon, she obtained permission from Miss Lyle to go to Lanc. with him. Mr. Lyte was told on Wednesday that the young man was not Miss Pletcher’s brother. Miss Pletcher told Mr. Lyte that he young man was brother John. The principal called Miss Pletcher’s mother on the telephone who said that her daughter has no brother and that this young man gave her a great deal of uneasiness, and that her word could not be taken. I advised her to come to Millersville to see about taking her away; but she wrote instead (letter on file with reply). The young man telephoned Miss Pletcher on Thursday morning, and on Friday the Principal telephoned her mother to come to school. On Thursday evening Alice wrote to the young man, whose name is John K. Jones (address 21 South 4th st. Harrisburg); but did not stamp the envelope, so it was returned. When her mother came, I handed the mother the letter without protest from Alice. The mother read parts of the letter aloud – In one place Alice begged the young man to come and marry her or she would make an end of herself. Her mother was directed to take her daughter with her, and they left about 8:30 on Friday evening.

Oct. 30, 1906
The Prin. presented the following resolution: –
Resolved. – “That it is the judgment of the faculty that none of the teachers of the school take any public part in any political meetings or in any meetings held for the presentation or the discussion of the issues or the policy of any political party.”
After some discussion the motion was laid on the table by the vote of the faculty.
The Prin. stated “That in his judgment none of the teachers of the school should take any public part in any political meetings during the present campaign.

Nov. 12, 1906
It was stated that on Fri. Nov. 9, fifteen sugar bowls were emptied in the dining room and their contents carried away. Miss Laura Shaub was reported for taking sugar from the dining room and Miss Eva Menno for taking butter.

Feb. 18, 1907
The following questions were proposed for debate: –
4. Res. That the attitude of the U. S. regarding the San Fransisco trouble with the Japanese is cringing[?].
[See https://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1110.html]

June 10, 1907
Frank Gemmill –
Earl Bates – } Each 10 dem[erits]. Talking on pavement and disobedience to teacher.
Carlos Ceparo – 10 dem. Riding bicycle on Sunday and disobedience to teacher.

1901-1904 Faculty Minutes: Ladies some times make candy in the closet with lamps and stoves.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1901-1904. A digitized copy will soon be available at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection. When it is uploaded, you will find it at http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/search/collection/mvsminutes.

Sept. 2, 1901
Bad boys are to be looked after- They are Wells, Dietrich.

Sept. 18, 1901
The Prin. stated that an unknown youngman, who is thought not to be a student, because he was seen smoking on the campus, had climbed up a fire-escape of the Ladies’ building. He was discovered by some of the ladies before he was fully up, and then beat a hasty retreat.

Sept. 23, 1901
There must be no conversation between the sexes on Sunday…
There will be no lecture at the Normal School on the Boer War.

Oct. 7, 1901
Miss Lyle spoke of a boy who fell asleep in his closet with his lamp burning by his side. Ladies some times make candy in the closet with lamps and stoves.

October 14, 1901
Miss Winters of the B division is doing fairly well in class, seems to have a pleasant room-mate and should be contented and happy.

Nov. 11, 1901
Ladies are not to go to the evening entertainments unless accompanied by a teacher.

Feb. 3, 1902
In sociables reunions and-so-forth: all exercises that require the boys to take hold of the ladies must be ruled out. There must be no exception to this rule.

Mar. 31, 1902
Mr. Hanlon was reported for striking Mr. Hachman in the nose causing it to bleed. Then while he (Mr. Hachman) was washing off the blood, Mr. Hanlon struck him again. There seems to be no occasion for the attack.
Mr. Hanlon said – “I lost my head, and it was my fault. Mr. Hachman did say to me that he could not hurt me as I had the jaw of an ass.

April 1, 1902
The following questions were given for debate:
Resolved – That the formation of combinations to control manufacturers and transportation is a menace to our country.
B. A. Heydrick.
2. Res. That the canteen system should be reestablished.
B. A. Heydrick.
3. Res. That a compulsory voting law should be passed.
Anna Lyle.
4 – Res. That the Nicaraguan canal route offers greater commercial and political advantage to the people of the United States that the Panama Canal route.
W. Mason Neff.
5 – Res. – That further annexation of territory would be injurious to the United States.
Amanda Landes
6 – Res. – That the re-passage of the Chinese Exclusion Bill was Justifiable.
Amanda Landes.
Res. – That United States senators should be elected by popular ballot.
Geo. W. Hull

May 12, 1902
Mr. Hanlon was reported for spending too much time in the engine house reading novels. He received 10 dem…
It was stated that the lady students sit on the gentlemen’s side of the chapel at lectures and engage in conversation with the gentlemen. Mr. Heydrick will see to this.
A boy in the supper hall has Megaphone with which he disturbs the students…
Note- At the meeting of the teachers of the seniors it was decided to say nothing to the weak seniors about their probability of graduating – It was suggested as this is the last year for the old course that it would be well to recommend all the seniors for graduation.

May 26, 1902
Committee on Discipline.
Mr. McGuinness’ case.
Mr. Krabill was informed that Messers. McGuinness and Moppit were tussling in Mr. Moyer’s room. Mr. Moppit had the advantage in the scuffle and this made Mr. McGuinness angry, and he struck Mr. Moppit and pulled his hair.
Messers. Beer and Laudenmilch told the Prin. essentially the same story.
Mr. McGuinness was brought before the committee and said : “I threw Mr. Moppit on the bed and he then threw me on the floor and bent my neck, thus shutting of the wind, I pulled his hair to make him get off, as I could not speak.
Mr. Moppit then struck me first, and was so mad he could not speak. I chew tobacco in the halls and several times spit on the wall paper. I went down to Mr. Moppit the next evening to apologize; but he would not admit that he struck me first and would not accept my apology.
Mr Beer was called before the committee and said that he had seen the last part of the fight – He heard Mr. Moppit scream and say “what do you want to kill me.” Mr. McG. said “I would just as soon kill you as not.” Mr. Moppit said he did not want to fight and did not strike Mr. McG.

June 2, 1902
Question referred to the Faculty – Should we have school on Saturday and none [sic] on Monday as they have in many places?

June 9, 1902
We mourn the death of Mrs. Anna Roddy. Our hearts go out in warm sympathy to our fellow member of the faculty, for whom the tie that binds husband and wife, the sweetest, dearest that earth can know, has been severed; for the little children whose tender years shall no more have the loving watchful care of a fond mother; for the parents who will no longer be cheered by the occasional home coming of a beloved daughter; for one another of ourselves who shall miss the pleasant greeting and the daily society of a genial friend.
We mourn indeed; but the chamber of our sorrow is lighted up, made all bright with the blessed hope of a happy reunion, – a hope that comes streaming in upon us from beyond the river: – the heart is heavy; but the weight that rests upon it is wonderfully sustained by the comforting thought that what for a few days is our apparent loss is now and shall forever be an infinite gain to her.
A.R. Byerly.
Anny Lyle.
H. F. Bitner.

Nov. 24, 1902
Miss Stella Belknop burnt the names of a club that meets in her room on the room door. She is willing to pay for removing it.

Feb. 3, 1903
He also wishes to know if we would not be the first Normal school to adopt the Modified spelling of N. E. A. The N. E. A. has endorsed the reformed spelling of 12 words, among them are: –
Through – throughout – thorough – thoroughfare – catalogue – demagogue – pedagogue – although – through &c…There was no strong desire to adopt the new spelling…
Dr. Huebeuer [a member of the Board of Trustees] was then called upon and said in substance: – “I am glad to see the interest manifested by the teachers in the progress and welfare of the students. I had no idea that such close supervision and careful analysis of each student was even made. I am glad to be present with you.”

Mar. 11, 1903
Mr. Gordon was called before the committee and accused of taken [sic] the following articles: –
Foot-Ball – He said he took the ball from small room in the front part of the gymnasium and put it in his locker, and afterwards took it to his room. He said some evil spirit got hold of him and could not resist.

Mar. 30, 1903
Dr. Bitner asked if a student in Ethics can receive $1.50 a week and substitute Ethics for Latin. No decision.

Apr. 20, 1903
In-as-much-as there are a number of irresponsible Italians in the vicinity of the school, it is thought wise that botanizing parties of ladies should go in groups of six or more, attended by a gentleman teacher if possible, should not go in the direction of the new trolley line, and be back early. To throw additional protection around the ladies the work will be lessened this term.

Apr. 27, 1903
Some of the boys bring ice-cream and other eatables to the reception room window for the ladies on Friday and Sat. evening. This is not a good practice, and should be discouraged.
In the match game of Base ball last Saturday, with the Kutztown Normal School, our team was defeated. It is thought that there is something wrong with the Management of our athletics. The game on Sat. should have been won by our club. The athletic committee should meet and see if our athletics cannot be improved, so that they are a credit to the school.

May. 8, 1903
A special faculty meeting was held this evening in the Public office, to consider the questions for the contest in debate…The following questions were presented:
1. A college education is an advantage to a business man.
2. Res. That trial by Jury should be abolished.
3. Res. That co-operation is better than the employment of labor by capital.
4. Res. That Booker T. Washington’s plan will solve the Negro question.
5. Res. That the present tendency to give a commercial value rather than a scholarly value to educations will result in detriment to our people.
6. Res. That the indifference of educated men to public affairs is greatly to be condemned.
7. Res. That the Africans in the United States will ultimately be detrimental to the advancement of the Anglo-Saxon race.
8. Res. That idlness should be forbidden by law, and work be provided by the state for all who cannot secure employment for themselves.
9. Res. That independent action in politics is preferable to party allegiance.
10. Res. That the Moral and Religious condition of the world is better today than in any previous century.
11. Res. That there should be a property and educational qualification required for voting.
12. Res. That it was a mistake to enfranchise the Negro at the time he was set free.

May 22, 1903
A petition was read from the gentlemen asking permission to appear on the grounds and in the buildings without coats. It was the opinion of those who discussed the matter that the petitions should not be granted.

June 22, 1903
Miss Ida P. Hamish wishes a recommendation for character and ability. It was stated that she was careless and indifferent, spent much time before a looking glass, some time with boys, &c.

October 5, 1903
Mr. Furgus Franey asks if he can return to school. When he was here he was not a good student. The Prin. will write him in such a way that he may not return.

December 21, 1903
Misses Ruth Losh, Rose Leirton and Mattie Glasgow were reported for dancing with three gentle[men] not connected with the school. Miss Losh rec. 15 dem[erits] – Miss Leirton, 10 – and Miss Glasgow 10 dem…
Mr. Ahrens stated that Messr. Breen and Moyer put decayed apples and water in Mr. Strouse’s bed, and remained in the closet to witness the result. They threatened him with a glass of water if he told.
He also said that Messrs. Moyer and Carrigan took a piece of sausage from the dining room and put it in Mr. Strouse’s bed.
He also stated that his door had been defaced, and cat was thrown into his room. Mr. Deaver was heard to say the evening the cat was on the hall, “Throw it in Mr. Ahren’s room.” Later the cat was found there. It is thought that Mr. Deaver was connected with other misdemeanors on the hall. He was stated that Mr. Deaver threw bricks through the hall on the evening of the Normal Anniversary.
Mr. Bitner stated that Messers. Lan and Prince had collected paper in the water closet and twisted it together and set fire to it.

Jan. 13, 1904
Miss Clarkson, Linten and Gowtner are reading too many novels. Prin. will see them

Jan. 18, 1904
The Prin. stated that Miss Clarkson had read three novels since Sept. Miss Linten and Miss Gowtner each one this year.

Jan. 18, 1904
The Prin. made the following suggestions:
1. – The Faculty should improve in at least one thing: – They are too careless in putting work on the board and with the papers.
2. – Some of the members use tobacco, but they should observe the general rules of the school – not to use it in their rooms and on the grounds.
3. – Basket-ball is not doing us any good – Games should not be arranged for until we are sure that we will have a good team to play them; and all games should be played on Saturday afternoon.

Jan. 21, 1904
He confessed to the committee that on the day when we was in Lanc. and drank with his friend, he also visited a house of ill fame. He expressed great sorrow that he had gone that time, and had not gone since and never would repeat the offense. He said we could call in his chum and ask him about where he was last night. Having spoken so confidently and apparently so truthfully, his chum was not called in and he left the office leaving the committee under the impression that Mr. Hart had made a mistake in the voice [that he heard].

February 15, 1904
The case of the girls that threw crockery on the stair-way between the 2d and 3d halls was considered. It had been ascertained by inquiry that Mary Mowery and Edith Strunck did it. They had denied it to Miss Lyle and Miss Gilbert but had afterwards confessed to Dr. Lyte and to Misses Lyle and Gilbert.
The report that led to their detection involved Clara MacDougal and Nannie Taylor as helping plan it. So when a motion was made to inflict demerits upon Misses Mowery and Strunck, it was objected that the other two girls should suffer punishment also. It was then decided to interview these girls and, first, Florence Cornell, through whom some of the information came. She came before the committee and said that shortly after she entered school in January she was in a room where were the girls mentioned, Florence Kupp, Ethel Clark and herself. the matter was broached and the affair planned then, each girl pledging herself to shield the others. It was long before it was carried out, and several of the girls, herself included, had lost track of it, and thought it abandoned. She heard Nannie Taylor urge, “Girls, it must be done tonight” several times. It was her trunk strap that was used to pull the articles down the steps; she had gone and asked for it before it was used, but was refused. She had just entered the school at the time and knew nothing of the spirit of the school or the kind of girls she was thrown with.
Miss MacDougal denied knowing more of the trick than many other girls, who , she said, had heard it talked over. She insisted it had been generally known through the school. She denied any knowledge of the throwing of the glass in the hall a few evenings later. Miss Nannie Taylor who came to the committee after Miss MacDougal said in effect, the same.
On motion it was decided to give Miss Mowery and Miss Strunck each twenty-five demerits, fifteen for disorder and ten for lying. Miss Lyle was instructed to censure Miss Taylor and Miss MacDougal for abetting the scheme.
Miss Landes reported Miss Dora Bordner for throwing a bottle through the hall after the retiring bell on Thursday evening Feb 11. She was caught in the act and afterward no denial. Fifteen demerits were given to her. Miss Landes also reported Pauline Stonesifer for throwing a broken glass pitcher and a tin can on Friday evening, Feb. 12, and Miss Florence Gingells for aiding and abetting her and furnishing the pitcher. Miss Stonesifer went to Miss Gherst and Miss Lyle next day and denied having done the mischief. Her room-mate Miss Mary Robinson said she had nothing to do with it; but acknowledged that the missiles came from their room. The girls next door heard the door of Miss Stonesifer’s room open and close at the time of the throwing. A girl across the hall saw some girls oiling the hinges of Miss Stonesifer’s door, but did not see who they were as she thought nothing of it until she heard the crash in the hall. On the strength of this evidence Miss Stonesifer was given fifteen demerits for the mischief and then for lying, twenty-five in all, and Miss Gingells who did not deny her share in the affair was given fifteen demerits.

May 23, 1904
Ladies and gentlemen must not play tennis together before 3.15 p.m.

May 31, 1904
Ladies must get permission of Miss Lyle when they go out with gentlemen members of the Faculty.

June 18, 1904
Messers. Lan and Likens were reported for playing cards. Mr. Likens entered Mr. Garber’s room and abused him, threatening him in case he reported them for card playing.
Likens was suspended…
Arnold Lloyd was reported for shooting an owl from his room window. He rec. 10 dem. and must sur. the gun.

Mis Lana Crist’s case.
Millersville, Pa.
Dec. 16, 1902.

The Committee of Discipline, con-
sisting of Misses Lyle, Gilbert, Taylor and
Landes, met in Miss Lyle’s room about
four o’clock to consider the case of Laura
Crist. On the preceding evening dur-
ing supper time, Grace Haun and
Bertha Henry had eleven dollars stolen.
Miss Crist had not gone down to supper,
being sick in bed, but was dressed and
had on gynasium [sic] shoes when the girls
came up from supper. From the remarks
she made when the story of the theft
was told, in her presence, and from
her actions, some of the girls became
suspicious of her. Her room-mate, Miss
Ada Habecker, with two other girls, Grace
Haun and Dora Boduer[?], went to the trunk
room and opened Miss Crist’s trunk.
They discoverd in the trimming of her
hat, a roll of bills. They went to Miss
Landes and reported the matter to her.
She went with one of them to the trunk
and took the hat. The bills were of the
same denominations as those stolen,
except that one two dollar bill was want-
ing. Miss Crist had shown a two dol-
lar bill in her purse to the girls, say-
ing that was all the money she had.
Miss Landes took the hat and money to
Dr. Lyte, and he asked the committee to
meet and consider it. Miss Crist was
sent for. She denied having taken the
money. After talking a little she offered
to pay the girls, Miss Haun and Miss
Henry, the money they had lost and let
the matter rest there. She said the stories
she had told the girls, especially her room-
mate, about not having money were to
mislead them. She tried to account for
the amount of money she had on hand.
She said she had taken the money up
to her hat in the garret the preceding
week, so that it would be safe. Later
she said the evening before. She said
that she would say that she took the
money and give it back. She said that
a number of times. Finally she said
that she had taken the money. She
offered to get the two dollar bill in
her purse for Miss Landes to give to
the girls and did so. She also told
Miss Landes that she wanted Miss
Landes to give the money in the hat
to Miss Haun and Miss Henry.

Dec. 16th, 1902,
6 o’clock.

The committee met again in Miss
Lyle’s room, with Dr. Lyte, who had
been informed of their previous action,
and Mr. Lansinger, as an old parish-
ioner and friend of Miss Crist’s father.
Miss Crist was again sent for. She
said she had confessed under com-
pulsion that she took the money, that
she did not take it. Finally, Dr.
Lyte said, “Laura, you are not now
under compulsion, are you?” She said
“No.” “And you took the money?” “Yes.”
She went to her room saying she ex-
pected to go home the next mor-
ning. No action was taken by the

Dec. 19, 1902.
Mr. Geo. W. Crist visited the school
to investigate his daughter’s conduct.
He met the committee in the reception room,
also Messrs Lyte, Lansinger, Byerly and
Bitner. Mr. Crist tried to account for
the money that Laura had, saying he
had sent her some bills from time to
time. Misses Henry, Boduer, Haun, and
Habecker were called in. They told
what they had told Miss Landes, Misses Henry and Miss Haun could not iden-
tify positively the bills returned to
them, but felt confident that they were
the same. Miss Haun’s five dollar bill
had had a peculiar fold lengthwise
and creases of that kind of folding
were in the bill returned to her. It
was told that Laura had taken Dora
Boduer’s handkerchief, and had written
her name over Dora’s. She had listen-
ed at the door next day when the girls
had talked about the theft. Her father
thought she might have been passing
along the hall, but the girls said
she had come and apologized to them
afterward for eavesdropping. Miss Hab-
ecker said she saw Laura’s letters from
home and knew she always got re-
mittance in checks. Mr. Crist said he
sometimes sent money in bills. Mr.
Crist asked if Laura has not had
a good reputation in the school before.
It was testified that she was coarse and
vulgar. After talking over an hour,
the meeting adjourned without any

Jan. 21, 1903.

Laura Crist brought suit for lar-
ceny against Amand Landes, Ada
Habecker, [?] Henry, and Grace
Haun. The hearing was set for Jan.
21st, before Alderman [?] in his

After hearing the testimony on the side
of the plaintiff, namely, Laura Crist,
Geo. W. Crist, Mr. Gibble, and Mrs. Giblle,
the last two of whom said that they had
seen laura have some money about
Thanksgiving time, the lawyer for the
plaintiff acknowledged that there was no
case of larceny and offered to withdraw [sic]
The lawyer for the defendants, Mr. Coyle,
asked to have some witnesses heard
on the other side. Misses Landes,
Habecker, Haun and Henry, and
Messrs Lyte, and Lansinger testified.
Miss Habecker said on the witness stand
that she had read a letter written by
Laura to her father in which she con-
fessed the theft. Mr. Crist, when recalled
said he did not remember whether he
had received such a letter or not.
The Alderman dismissed the case
and discharged the defendants.

1899-1901 Faculty Minutes: Teachers were asked to discourage all attempts at disorder.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1899-1901. A digitized copy will soon be available at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection. When it is uploaded, you will find it at http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/search/collection/mvsminutes.

August 29, 1899
The work put on the board by the teachers should be models of neatness.

Oct. 16, 1899
Special Case:-
Miss Getzinger blew a horn in the ladies building about the ringing of the “study” bell. Not very loud. She passed it to Miss Kath. Kaufman who also blew it, but on a subsequent evening. The horn was then passed to Miss Belle Thompson who blew it very loud.

Nov. 27, 1899
Miss Mary Weaver is doing well in her classes, but reads too many novels.

Feb. 12, 1900
The following paper was read to the Faculty:-
“On Friday, Feb. 2, Mr. Haeberle told the Principle that he heard of a position in New York. The Prin. told him that he could not release him from his work at this time. On Saturday evening, Feb. 3, Mr. Haeberle told the Prin. that the position was offered to him. He was again told that he could not be released at once. The Prin. suggested that possible the place might be held for him till the end of the session or at least for a few weeks, and told him that he might be absent on Monday to go to New York to see whether such an arrangement could be made. He went on Saturday Night and saw the Principals of the Brooklyn School on Sunday, returning to Millersville Sunday evening. On Monday Morning he told Mr. Lyte that he had accepted the new position and would leave Millersville Wednesday. He left his work here Tuesday night. Feb. 6.”

Mar. 14, 1900
Misses Phipps (Louise & Hannah) and Mr. Elwood Phipps desired a written statement of their standing in the senior class. The following statement was prepared:-
“The standing of Miss Hanna Phipps, Miss Louise Phipps and Mr. Elwood Phipps does not warrant us in saying at this time that they will be able, barring accidents, to complete the Elementary Course this year. It is probable that Louise and Elwood will be able to do so, by regular attendance upon class and unremitting work. Hannah is not so strong in her studies as her brother and sister, and consequently is less likely to pass. We feel however that it would be an injustice to them all to take final action on the question so far in advance of the final examination.”

May 7, 1900
The Prin. stated that Miss Gardner and Miss Laura Thomas and Messrs. Forbert and Stricker received the demerits mentioned in the last minutes for playing tennis under false-pretense. They made it an occasion to talk to one another.
Gentlemen should not play tennis in shirt sleeves.
Boys should not go to the ironing room when ladies are there.

May 9, 1900
It is stated that Mr. Oram Lansinger and Misses Getzinger and Mary Lee Black met in Shenk’s Lane in the vicinity of the last small brick house, and went into the fields to the left going down, and Miss Getzinger returned to the lane before the other two. She was met there by Messrs. Weiss, McGrul and Geo. Knoff. and was either forced to return to the field or was induced to return. Here the statements of the ladies were read,- In brief they say the boys forced Miss Getzinger to go in the field pushed her up against a tree, and treating her in a very rude manner, using language so vile that they cannot tell it even to ladies. Mr. Knoff went on ahead and seized Miss Black who was in the field. All the boys laid hands on the girls and attempted to do them great injury. They state (Girls) that they resisted from the beginning and were over powered. &c.
Mr. Geo. Harold Weiss was called before the committee and at first denied having laid hands on either of the girls, but confessed having met them at the time and place specified. But after he found that the committee knew the matter confessed that he had his arms around Miss Getzinger and treated her in an ungentlemanly way.
Mr. McGurl was called before the committee and soon confessed that he had grossly violated the laws of propriety. He said he knew he had disgraced the school, his home, and himself.
Mr. Knoff said he had taken hold of Miss black and tried to induce her to go farther down in the field. But she refused.
The committee could not agree on the punishment. They adjourned to meet on Thursday morning at 8.15.
…The punishment was fixed as follows:
1. No honors will be given to and of the persons engaged in this misdemeanor.
2. The boys were suspended until Saturday June 9.
3. The girls are to be campused until Saturday June 9, and denied social privileges as fixed by the Prin.
The first resolution was passed unanimously, and the last two had one negative veto.

May 14, 1900
The class of 1880 asked the Faculty to suggest something appropriate to present to the school. The following things were proposed.
1. Memorial window in the Model School.
2. Prize for debate.
3. Buy Mineral collection.

June 21, 1900
The teachers were asked to discourage all attempts at disorder.

September 17, 1900
The teachers should all be impartial and not favor the members of one society above those of the other. Be gentle, kind and not sentimental. See that all the students are called upon to recite each day, especially in the lower classes. Assign definite lessons and see that they are covered.

Oct. 8, 1900
The Prin. stated that some of the students wish to form an orchestra and give entertainments. Will it be wise to allow them to do it? It is thought not.

Oct. 15, 1900
A letter was read, in which the author asked if two colored students could be admitted to our school. It was thought that they could be admitted if they board out.

April 8, 1901
The committee appointed to bring in
questions for debate gave the following
1 Dr. Byerly.- Res.- That intemperance is a greater evil than war.
2 Dr. Hull.- Res. That United States senators should be elected by popular ballot.
3 Prof. Heydrick.- Res. That the United States should construct a canal across the Isthmus of Panama.
4 Miss Lyle.- That all Christian nations should now disarm and depend upon arbitration for the settlement of disputes.
5 Prof. Neff.- Res. That further annexation of territory is not for the best interest of the American people.
6 Res. That the veteran teacher is more worthy of a pension than the veteran soldier.

April 15, 1901
It was stated that the lady members of the botany classes can go beyond the limits, but must go in groups of not less than 6 and must be back at the ringing of the first bell.

1897-1899 Faculty Minutes: Mr. Kratz was seen with a pumpkin in the hall.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1897-1899. A digitized copy can be found at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection:


Millersville, Pa. Sept. 13, 1897
Too many things are thrown from the windows.

Millersville, Pa. Oct. 11, 1897
Excursion to Washington- was discussed. The excursion was designed for seniors only; but it is the opinion of some members of the Faculty that any students who desires to go, may have permission. The fare is $7.25, this includes car fair and hotel accommodations for two days at Washington. The following is the itinery [sic]
[pasted itinerary in book containing the following text]
Pennsylvania Railroad Tour to Washington, D.C.
Itinerary of First State Normal School.
On arrival at Washington, at 7.15 P.M., special omnibuses will be in
readiness to convey passengers to hotel.
Meet in the rotunda of the Capitol at 9.00 A.M. sharp for tour of the
building, under escort of special guides. Visit Congressional Library.
Take Metropolitan cars, East Capitol Street to 7th Street. Post Office
Department. Patent Office. State, War, and Navy Departments. Luncheon
at hotel at 1.00 P.M. Meet at Treasury Department 1.45 P.M. sharp (vaults
close at 2.00 P.M.). Visit Washington Monument. The elevator in the
Monument will carry only thirty persons on each trip. Trips commence on
the hour and half hour, and occupy thirty minutes. Last trip starts 4.30 P.M.
Visit Bureau of Printing and Engraving at 9.30 A.M.; Agricultural
Department; Smithsonian Institution; National Museum and Corcoran
Gallery of Art, and White House. Luncheon at hotel. Take train for
home, at 3.40 P.M., from Station Sixth and B Sts.
If possible arrangements will be made for a reception by President

Millersville, Pa. Oct. 18, 1897
When gentlemen teachers take ladies out in the evening, the Ladies must first get permission from Miss Lyle. This rule does not apply to the afternoon.

Millersville, Pa. Nov. 22, 1897
Miss Lyle stated that Miss Poutz and Miss Roseboro were reading too many novels. The Prin. see them.
Millersville, Pa. Jan 10, 1898
The money received from the Oriental Troubadour amounting to $ 23.60, is to be divided equally with the Page, and Normal Societies, and the Athletic Association.

Millersville, Pa. May 9, 1898
Mr. Roddy reported Misses Holmes and Cummings for dancing in the chapel at a time when they were repeatedly told not to. Each received 5 dem.

Millersville, Pa. June 13, 1898

Some of the students did not observe the instructions of the Prin. concerning the evening sociable on last Wednesday. They did not return to the building and went in pairs.

Millersville, Pa. October 31, 1898
Mr. Kratz was seen with a pumpkin in the hall. His case was referred to a committee.

Millersville, Pa. Nov. 14 1898
The committee composed of the gentlemen members of the Faculty, meet immediately after the regular meeting of the Faculty to consider the case of Messrs. Stackhouse and Snyder. These gentlemen were called before the committee, and their stories agreed in the following facts:
That Mr. Raymond Snyder slept in the room with Messrs. Robert and Howard Stackhouse- That about midnight, or between 12 & 1 o’clock, when ever a chicken crowed in the neighborhood, they imitated it.

Millersville, Pa. Mar. 6, 1899
He denied having made any noise in his room. But the Prin. went out and asked his brother about the matter who said that Howard had made noise in the room.

Millersville, Pa. Mar. 27, 1899
Mr. Lansinger [suggested to his colleagues] “Do not call students names – block-head etc.”
…Teachers should be models for the students in all things.

Millersville, Pa. Mar. 28, 1899
The Principal desires to call the attention of members of the Faculty to the fact that the business of the meetings will be better performed if no one reads any newspaper or books or corrects papers, or in any other way fails to follow the routine work of the meetings. This suggestion is made without reflecting upon any one, as the custom seems to have grown with long practice. He believes that all will approve and follow there suggestion.

Millersville, Pa. Jan. 9, 1899
It was stated that Mr. Herbert Thomas was “sly”, “smooth”, “good at making excuses”, “can’t spell”, etc.

Millersville, Pa. Jan. 23, 1899

The Principal stated that the teachers had the power to rectify wrongs wherever seen. They should feel that their duty to preserve order extends to all parts of the building and grounds.

Millersville, Pa. Mar. 6, 1899
[Howard Stackhouse] acknowledged that he had gone to Lanc. without permission, and has been using profane language in his room. He denied having made any noise in his room. But the Prin. went out and asked his brother [Robert Stackhouse] about the matter who said that Howard had made noise in the room.

Millersville, Pa. Mar. 27, 1899
[Mr. Lansinger made the following suggestions to his fellow teachers:]
Do not trifle in class,
,, ,, call students names – block-head &c
,, ,, address familiarly, but call all students Mr. and Miss.
,, ,, electioneer for the societies

Millersville, Pa. Apr. 12, 1899
Musical instruments are played on Sunday. This question was discussed but no definite conclusion reached.

Millersville, Pa. May 22, 1899
Study bells will ring here-after at 7.15 and 7.30 except on cloudy evenings.

Millersville, Pa. May 29, 1899
The Prin. stated that the children about the school make too much noise.

1892-1896 Faculty Minutes: Ladies will not clean their rooms before the sounding of the gong.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1892-1896. A digitized copy can be found at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection: http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mvsminutes/id/3099/rec/6

Sept 26, 1892: Mr. Williamson of the firm of Williamson & Foster, Lancaster, desires to plant a tree in honor of the Normal on his private lawn, and requests the Prin. and Faculty to name it. The following trees were named: Linden, Hickory, Birch, Maple, Norway Fir, &c. The Linden seemed to be preferred.

Oct. 3, 1892: Teachers are to give pupils every opportunity to learn to express themselves properly. Teachers are to dismiss their classes promptly. Teachers are to come to chapel promptly. Teachers are to “hustle”, not to be negligent or tardy but always prompt.

Oct. 13, 1892: Mr. Croll seems to be wasting his time. He is seen too frequently standing around in the hall.

Oct. 31, 1892: Strickler and Mancha were reported for carrying shovels up into the hall. They each received 5 dem. Mr. Strickler was reported for swearing, he recieved 5 demerits. Mr. D. Ritchey was reported for swearing, using tobacco in the building and not extinguishing his light at the proper time. He received 11 dem.

Nov. 21, 1892: Can Mr. Sebell finish the junior next summer? It is thought not. Does John R. Taylor study well? He does not recite well and does not associate with the best boys.

Nov. 21, 1892: There will be a sociable on Thanksgiving evening. There is to be no dancing on the chapel platform.

Jan 16, 1893: It was decided that dancing on Fri. and Saturday evening in the chapel shall be discontinued.

Feb 6, 1893: Mr. Pinkham, chairman of the committee on the gymnasium suits for the boys, reported that a suit consisting of
Gray Pantaloons for $2.00
Black Sweater .75
Shoes 1.00
Black Belt .25
Total 4.00
would be a very neat and appropriate suit for the boys.

Feb 13, 1893: Mr. Bitner stated that some of the boys came to the table with their sweaters on, which does not seem appropriate. A short discussion of the subject was participated in by several members of the Faculty. It is thought that the matter will regulate itself.

Feb 13, 1893: Ladies will not clean their rooms before the sounding of the gong.

Feb 27, 1893: Snow-balling must be discontinued in the front campus.

Mar 13, 1893: Boys should not loaf and smoke about the ladies gate. Gentlemen students should keep off the grass in the front yard. There must be no ball playing in the front campus.
The erasers should be cleaned more frequently.

Apr. 10, 1893: The teachers will tell their classes how to move in the halls. Always turn to the right even if you are going in the opposite direction.

Apr. 17, 1893: The Y.M.C.A asked permission to invite a company from York to give an exhibition of the phonograph in the chapel. No objections were made.

May 29, 1893: The senior class does not seem to be doing as well as they did before the honors were given out. It is thought that the honors should be given out nearer final examination.

June 26, 1893: Mr. G.W. Lewis was reported firing torpedoes. He received 10 dem.

June 30, 1893: Girls are not to stay all night in Lanc. They are not to go to any of the parks in Lanc.

Oct. 2, 1893: The Prin. suggested that some of the teacher [sic] talk too loud in class.

Oct. 11, 1893: The Prin. said that in the lower classes in history the teachers should call the attention of the students to the chief current events in the papers and thus endeavor to get them to read the papers.

Feb. 5, 1894: Mr. Lansinger, chairman of the committee, to investigate the report that Mr. Stump was selling hard cider to our students, stated that some of the boys in the village bought something at Mr. Stump’s which was strong enough for them to fall. It is not known than any of our boys bought anything to drink at Mr. Stump’s. Mr. Brubaker stated that he heard positively that Mr. Wells got cider at Mr. Stump’s. He sells it at 3 cents a glass. A rumor states that Messrs. Probert, Weiss, and Long have been drinking. Also that Mr. Powall was intoxicated on his birth-day.

Feb. 5, 1894: The committee appointed to consider what constitutes cheating (beg leave) to offer the following report:
1. Any student found using aids of any kind, or found having aids in examination that were previously prepared by himself or obtained from anyone, shall be considered guilty of cheating and shall be at once dismissed from class.
2. Any student found giving aid to any student in examination, shall be regarded as guilty of cheating, and shall be hence dismissed from the examination.
3. Any student allowing any one to copy from his paper, or so arranging his paper as to enable another student to copy from it, shall be regarded as guilty of cheating, and shall be dismissed at once from class.
4. Any student observed looking on the paper of another, shall be considered as cheating, and shall be at once dismissed from class.

Feb. 5, 1894: Mr. Zug confessed that he has been using profane language in the building, he said he could not help it. He hears it at home. No punishment given.

Letter to Mr. S.B, Shank
Feb. 12, 1894
Mr. S.B. Shank,
Millersville, Pa.

Dear Sir,
As secretary of the Faculty, it become my duty to inform you that your son Edwin, is now in only four studies, viz: Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, and Chemistry; and is not doing very well in these. Besides he is absent from class on an average of once a week from each class.
Can you not aid us in having him attend class more regularly? Would it not be better for you to sign his excuses?
Yours truly,
Geo. W. Hull
Sec. of the Faculty

Letter to Mr. Charles P. Powell
Feb. 12, 1894
Mr. Charles P. Powell,
Maple, Del.
Dear Sir,

As secretary of the Faculty it becomes my duty to inform you that your son Walter, brought with him on his return to school after the holidays some whiskey which he said was given to him by a friend (young man) in Phila. He drank some of the whiskey on his birthday to cure himself of a sever cold. He has given up the remainder of the whiskey and has promised that he will not drink any intoxicating liquors during his stay at this institution. In other respects he has been a good boy.
Very truly yours,
Geo. W. Hull,
Sec. of the Faculty

Mar. 5, 1894: Miss Landes stated that there is a great deal of improper clapping in the literary societies, and asked if any thing could be done to prevent it.
The Prin. stated that there are a few boys here who are both bad and malicious. The hall teachers should be unusually vigilant at the end of the session.

April 2, 1894: Practicing on the bicycle on Sunday is not allowed.

April 23, 1894: Loafing in and near Lincoln hall must be discontinued.

June 25, 1894: Mitchell 10 for throwing torpedoes in the hall.

Sept. 24, 1894: A discussion concerning the boarding was participated in by several members of the Faculty in which it was indicated that the bread was not as good as it should be, and less meat would be preferable.

Nov. 12, 1894: It was suggested that the students should not come to the dinning room with sweaters on. Prof. Pinkham will speak to the gentlemen about the matter.

Dec. 3, 1894: It was suggested that the refreshments served at the sociables is objectionable, 1st because they are abused by students going down several times, and 2nd because they are expensive.

Dec. 10, 1894: It was stated that Mr. Clyde Hosletter had not brought the mouse referred to in the last minutes, into the Page Society, but had simply caught it while in the meeting of the society, and left it go again. His punishment was remitted except the 10 dem.

Dec. 10, 1894: Messrs. Brewer and Mesner, continue to go to the dining room with sweaters on.
Messrs. Kerfer and C.A. Apple took carpet from Mrs. Williams and put it on the floors of their room. They were required to return the carpet and each received 5 dem.
It was stated that some of the boys have keys to the dark rooms. These should be returned.

Jan. 28, 1895: Rumor says there is card playing in the gentlemen’s building. A case was reported to the Prin. which was investigated and found to be false.

Feb. 4, 1895: Mr. Cochran desires to know why the Faculty think his influence in the school is bad. The following reasons were given:
1. Uses bad language
2. Manifests a haughty air.
3. Has taken goods from other rooms, and destroyed property.
4 His companions have changed for the worse.

Feb. 18, 1895: Messrs. Wm. Roundsley, Bagenstose, Patterson, Koefer, Kreider and Burns, were accused of playing cards. When called before the committee they all confessed the charge and said they had learned to play cards at home, with the single exception of Mr. Roundsley.
Their punishment was fixed at 10 dem. each, and sign a pledge not to play cards while connected with this institution as students.

Feb. 25, 1895: The Prin. stated that the boys who were playing cards were obliged to sign a pledge which was read. 90 boys signed a paper to use their influence to prevent card playing if the demerits were removed from the boys punished. On motion this was done.

Apr. ,1895: A committee composed of Messrs. Lyte, Byerly, Hull, Bitner, Lindsay, and Roddy was called in the public office to consider the care of Mr. Keifer, who was reported for putting his arm around Miss Elizabeth Hunter on the Funk’s streets.
Mr. Keifer also went to Lanc. twice without permission.
Mr. Keifer was called before the committee, an he denied the charge. I simply spoke to her, and had done the same thing before and she did not object. As soon as I knew she was in earnest I went away.
After some discussion it was thought best to ask his father to have his son withdrawn from school.

Committee Meeting, Apr. 24, 1895.
Messrs. Lyte, Byerly, Hull, Bitner, Lindsey, Lansinger, Roddy, and Pinkham, met to consider the case of Mr. Keifer.
Mr. Lyte stated that he has written to Mr. Keifer’s father to take his son Guy away from school. But the father came to ask if his son could not remain until the close of the term.
It was stated that on the day when Mr. Keifer had promised his father to do better, he in company with Mr. Coyle kicked a boy’s new hat to pieces.
After some discussion it was moved, and the motion prevailed that he be required withdraw from school to-morrow.

May 14,1895: Mr. McBurney stated that he had been met in his hall in the dark, after the last retiring bell, by two students who, in their endeavor to get away and prevent recognition, threw him to the floor. He is quite sure that one of the boys was Mr. Greider, and the other Mr. Rohrer.
Mr. Grider (Greider) having withdrawn from school, Mr. Rohrer was called before the committee. Mr. Pinkham said that Mr. Rohrer had intended not to appear before the committee; but was urged to come and did so. Mr. Rohrer at first denied having any thing to do with the while matter, but afterwards confessed that he was there, but Mr. Greider threw Mr. McBurney.
It was finally decided that Mr. Emerson Rohrer will be required to board out of the building at Mr. Fry’s, and not be allowed to go into the gentlemen’s building.
Mr. Greider will not be allowed to reenter School without first obtaining permission to do so, and if he be permitted to return, must sign a pledge to comply with all the regulations of the school.

June 4,1895: In the report of the visiting committee, it was stated that the students lack in general information.

June 12,1895: It is rumored that Mr. Lynch meets Miss Gert. Miller at Mr. Howards.

June 29,1895:
Faculty met in Room A Saturday Morning at 7.35.
Mr. Metzger water throwing during study period. Mr. Reitzel was the leader. Reitzel threw water seven times on other students, under the doors and through the key-holes. Tudor threw threw once, Jones once, and Flack once.
Reitzel was reported for swearing.
Mr. Free, on the 27 of June, threw a bag of water into Mr. Eschbach’s room.
Mr. Rex was reported for swearing.
Mr. Reitzel received 20 demerits, 15 for throwing water and 5 for swearing.
Mr. Rex received 5 dem. for swearing.
Clyde Eby rec. 15 dem. for throwing water.
Mr. Free      ,,   10   ,,     for     ,,           ,,

Oct. 28,1895: Mr. Bitner stated that a committee from the Evan. Church stated that if they received $25 more from the Faculty, they would be able to put several windows with stained glass in, and would name them, Normal School. It was though best by the Faculty not to have any windows marked “Normal School,” The reasons for this decision are (1) If windows were put in Evan. Ch., other churches would have an equal right to ask and expect windows for their churches; (2) If windows of a similar character were not put in the other churches, the Evan. Ch. would appear to be the Church approved by the Faculty; (3) that there would not be a sufficient amount contributed to finish a window which would be a credit to the School.

Oct. 28,1895:
M. Langner.- I was in bed at the time of the noise, got up, and went into the hall. I made a noise like a cat. On a former occasion I took a lamp out of the hall, and carried a piece of pipe into the hall.
Punishment- 10 dem. sign a pledge.
Mr. Witcomb- A helped to make the noise over the transom on the evening referred to, imitating a cat and rooster. Did not help to take the wheelbarrow into the hall, but knew it was going there. I have also repeatedly thrown water from the windows. After leaving the room he returned and said that he had been telling us lies, because the boys told him, that he would fair better if he lied. He then corrected the two statements (1) that he knew what the noise was for, (2) that he knew that the wheelbarrow was brought up for a purpose.
Punishment- 20 dem. sign a pledge
Mr. Cassavant – Hr was in the noise the first night, but not the second. Was in the nocturnal parade.
Punishment- 5 dem. for going to Lanc. without permission, and 10 for noise in the hall. Not punished yet for parading
Mr. Melvin- was not in the noise but took part in the nocturnal parade.
punishment – not fixed
Mr. Witmer- Was not in any of it.
Mr. Miller- Was not in any of it, simply asked students for stories

Nov. 18,1895: The committee in charge of the sociables are requested to meet & make a report. The practice of giving refreshments, and making money by auction are of doubtful propriety.

Nov. 25,1895: It was reported that there is too much candy made among the ladies. They get the butter and sugar in the dinning room.

Dec. 9, 1895: Miss Hughes is not doing well in class. She reads too many novels.

Dec. 10, 1895: Case.- Mr. Cassavant met Miss Sadie Flack at the west end of Millersville and had met frequently before.
Mr. Cassavant .- was called before the committee and said he took a walk with Miss Flack. I did not know she was going out. Never met her before, and was with her this time about 5 min and left her near the car house.
Misses Lyle, Landes, Taylor and Myers were added to the committee and Miss Flack was called in.
She said.-“I met Mr. Cassavant on the way to Petersville in front of the small house on the hill (above Rummels). I told him in Gram Class that I was going to take a walk and he replied all right. I left him at the leather store (Brubaker’s). I met him beyond the limits, around the big square. I met on Thanksgiving day.
Punishment.- Miss Flack will received 15 dem. be required to sign a pledge, be campused indefinitely and be obliged to write to her parents, who in turn will write to the Prin.
Mr. Cassavant was required to withdraw from school.

Dec. 16,1895: The ladies will not skate on the Conestoga.

Feb. 26,1896: It was decided to have a rule hereafter that any student who tells the faculty a deliberate lie shall receive 10 dem. for the offense.

Mar. 2, 1896: Mr. Hosletter promised to send some matter concerning the Armenians. A collection will be taken up in the chapel on Wednesday, for the relief of the Armenians.

June 22, 1896: Mr. Clyde Hosletter rec. 5 dem. for annoying a drunken man in chapel.

July 3,1896: Mr. Clayton Hess rec. 10 dem. for carelessness

1889-1892 Faculty Minutes: All peculiar expressions used by the students should be carefully noticed and dulled out of them

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1889-1892. A digitized copy can be found at the Keystone Library Network’s Digital Collection: http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mvsminutes/id/2610/rec/4

Millersville, Pa, September 2, 1889
Miss Pryor is subject to hemorrhage of the nose. The teachers will please remember this.

Millersville, Pa, October 14, 1889
The Prin. stated that all peculiar expressions used by the students should be carefully noticed and dulled out of them.

Millersville, Pa, October 28, 1889
Miss Alberta Gamber was reported for throwing water near midnight on Miss Upcroft and Sherwood in their room; for entering Miss Wolfersberger’s room through the window and washing her face while asleep and also for throwing water in a third room. She was detected burning her light in her closet once this session and several times before. It was the opinion of the Faculty that owing to the agreement between the hall teacher and Miss Gamber, concerning the burning of the light, that she should not be punished for the offense. A motion made by Mr. Hull to fix the punishment at 20 demerits was carried.

…Mr. A. W. Lewis delivered an oration in the Page Society Oct. 25. The oration was delivered in a very undiginified manner. He went on the platform chewing gum and several times stopped during the delivery of the oration to chew gum.

Millersville, Pa, November 4, 1889
Messrs C.H. Thompson, G.H. Fox, and Geo. Lynch are inclined to be mischievous and should be kept at work.

…The Prin. stated that the visiting committee gave a very favorable report at the last meeting of the Board of Trustees. The Chairman stated that the teachers talked just enough and no more. He regarded this as a high act.

Millersville, Pa, November 18, 1889
Mr. Bitner said that in a conversation with the house-keeper of the school concerning the dining room he had incensed her displeasure. She then informed him that she had been instructed by Mr. A.M. Frantz of Lanc. to report the conduct of the Faculty to him. On further inquiry it was ascertained that she was instructed not only to observe and report the conduct of the Faculty in the dining room, but their deportment generally. Her manner and tone indicated that Mr. Bitner should take warning or he would be reported and might be dismissed.
After some discussion of the matter the following resolution was presented:
“In-as-much as every member of this Faculty is doing all in his or her power for the success of this institution; Therefore be it resolved,
that any attempt on the part of any outside party to act as informer to any one concerning the actions of this Faculty is a reflection upon us and will not be tolerated.”
The peace and prosperity of the school demand a discontinuance of any conduct of this kind if it has been done.
After further consideation it was thought that while the forgoing resolutions expressed the sentiments of every member of the Faculty it was not deemed advisable to take formal action upon the matter at present.

Millersville, Pa, November 19, 1889
The object of this meeting was to investigate a charge against Mr. Geo. H. Fox. The following is the charge briefly stated.
Mr. Fox delivered an obscene recitation before the Page Society on last Saturday evening. He has acknowledged the misdemeanor and has signed a statement to the same effect in the prin. black book.


Millersville, Pa, November 25, 1889
It was ascertained that Mr. Geo. Fox was urged by Arthur Lewis to give the recitation in the Page Junior Society for which he was suspended. Mr. Lewis acknowledged that he urged Mr. Fox to give the recitation. Mr. Roddy reported Mr. Lewis for reading Tom Paine[?] or Bob Ingersoll in his room. After some discussion Mr. Hull moved that Mr. Lewis receive 25 demerits and be reprimanded by the Prin.
The following regulations were suggested to be acted upon at some future meeting for County Institute at Lancaster hereafter:
…2. Lady students must go with a teacher to attend evening entertainments.
3. During the day, ladies who go to Lancaster are not to have prolonged conversation with gentlemen.

Millersville, Pa, December 2, 1889
The Prin. also spoke to Mr. Keesey about visiting of Mr. Wallick’s in the village etc. She visit Mr. W. but once in company with Miss Henning and then met no gentlemen there. She had permission to meet Mr. Matter in Lancaster from her mother. She was surprised to find that the Faculty thought her influence was not good.
Mr. Arthur Lewis bought ten books published by Bob Ingersoll. The question was raised about the propriety of legislating against the use of such literature in this school. It was thought best to take no action.

Millersville, Pa, December 9, 1889
The Prin. reported that Messrs Andes, Smitham, Doughty, and Keylor were detected at playing cards. A paper signed by 41 of the students was handed to the Prin. in which they pledge themselves to use their influence against said playing. It was thought best not to inflict any other punishment. The four persons above named signed the paper.

Millersville, Pa, January 20, 1890
The Prin. gave a full account of the visit made by himself and a committee from the Board of Trustees to Lafayette, Lehigh, Phila. and Bryn Mawr. The object of the visit was to examine the gymnasium, and Library buildings at these places with a view of understanding similar building has.
The Prin. requested that in case any of the trustees should speak to any of the teachers concerning the matter, they should state the we need a library building and a gymnasium. There should be in separate buildings.

Millersville, Pa, January 27, 1890
Health…Miss McCoy is sick with a light attack of scarlet rash. The teachers are requested to say nothing about it.

Millersville, Pa, February 3, 1890
Ladies go to Lanc. too frequently. Some of them have been attending matinees at the opera house.
This statement by the Prin. led to a discussion concerning ladies visiting Lane. which resulted in the adoption of the following regulations:
1. Lady students visiting must go in the Sat. afternoon so far as possible.
2. On Sunday they must return at 12 o’clock.
3. On week days must not leave Lane. later than 4 o’clock.
4. Must not attend the theater with out permission.
The Prin. asked if it is possible to keep a record of students going to Lanc or leaving school for a few days. After some discussion, Mr. Byerly suggested that a book be kept to record the name, date, place, visited. Mr. Bitner suggested that his cards be presented by the student, one to be signed by the Prin., or teacher in charge and given the student and the other retained.

Millersville, Pa, February 17, 1890
The committee to investigate the charge prepared against Mr. S. Gable met immediately after the Faculty adjourned, in room one. All the members were present.
Mr. Gable was called before the committee. Mr. Byerly stated the object of calling him. He had been accused of blowing a horn in the halls.
Mr. Gable stated as his defense that he had never blown a horn since he has been connected with the school. He said he was shocked to find that he had been accused; that he was as innocent as any member of the committee; he hoped that he would never breath[?] again if he had done so; his conscience was perfectly clear and all he could do, was to deny the charge.
This he persisted in for about one hour, after which time he made the following confession:
Mr. Bryner and I went out of the building last Wednesday evening. On the way down he blew the horn, and when we returned I gave the horn one puff and ran into Mr. Johnson’s room. I was afraid of suspension, and therefore I denied it. I had nothing to do with the tearing up of the boys rooms.
Mr. Bryner was then called before the committee and Mr. Byerly again stated the charged prepared against him.
He said that he had not blown a horn since he was connected with the school. He denied the charge just as positively as Mr. Gable, but in milder language. After the space of bout 45 min. he confessed, in substance to about the same as given above in Mr. Gables statement.
Mr. Bryner was not as clear and frank as Mr. Gable and the committee felt that Mr. Bryner had not stated all that he had done.

Millersville, Pa, March 3, 1890
No further business appearing the Faculty adjourned in peace and harmony at 6.50 P.M.

Millersville, Pa, March 20, 1890
The Prin. stated that we could congratulate ourselves on the good order at the close of the session. This is due to two causes; 1. The sentiment of the students is against disorder at the close of term. 2. The vigilance of the teachers in general and the hall teachers in particular.

Millersville, Pa, April 14, 1890
A few ladies seem to acting silly [sic] with the boys and should be watched.
Ladies, other than Seniors, can not go for flowers unless they have a teacher with them…
Mr. Shutty is reported to be a wild boy. The Prin. will give him 7 studies. The teachers will see that works.

Millersville, Pa, May 5, 1890
The following rules should be observed and enforced at every review and examination:
Every sentence must begin with a capital.
Every declarative sentence must end with a period.
A finite verb must agree with its subject in person and number.
Every paragraph must be indented.

Millersville, Pa. Oct. 6 , 1890
The Prin. stated that Mr. Thomas Thomas handed a suit of clothes to Miss Hiester through the window of room D to the ladies building. She put them on in her room. After some discussion it was agreed to make the punishment consist in stating to her that the Faculty regards the act as unlady like and a repetition of a similar offense will receive severe punishment.

Millersville, Pa. October 28, 1890
The Prin. suggested that Miss Demuth be treated with firmness and without the usual delicacy that is generally the better method of dealing with students.
The following girls are immodest and do not know how to behave. Misses Evans, Freudenberger, Hiester, Reynolds, Courtwright and Tater. The Prin. thought he would speak to all the ladies tomorrow evening on the general subject of proper conduct. The Prin. asked the teachers to use all possible influence to correct the bold or bad habits of our girls. Teachers are to report for punishment at the next Faculty meeting all girls who do not immediately leave the chapel after society, when asked by the teacher.

Millersville, Pa. November 4, 1890
Reg[ulations] for the County Institute…
2.The ladies who attend the evening entertainment must go with a teacher.
3. The students (ladies) who attend the institute must have no conversation with the gentlemen.

Millersville, Pa. November 17, 1890
It was ascertained that some of the ladies go out walking in the morning before breakfast. This should be discontinued.

Millersville, Pa. March 7, 1892
Mr. Zug was called before the committee. He was ready to debate the question with the committee. He asked if a social game of cards was harmful. He thought since we had a ten-pin alley that we would allow card- playing, To justify his conduct, he said boy who attend [sic] school last session learned to pay ten-pins here and afterward played at Lititz for money.
His punishment was fixed at 15 dem. for playing cards. A motion was also passed requiring him to withdraw from school.
Paul Morris
Mr. Morris was called before the committee. He confessed that he has been playing cards. When asked if he had anything to say why he should not be suspended? He said this was his first offense at card-playing, and I should not be suspended for this. He knew it was against the regulation of the institution.
He received 15 dem. for playing cards. A motion was then passed to suspend him from school. Another motion was made and prevailed, not allowing him to return to school again.

Millersville, Pa. May 3, 1892
It was decided that no musical instruments should be played on Sunday.
There will be a Musical recital in the chapel. The usual regulations will be in force.
It was decided that no lady students will be allowed to visit the circus in Lancaster next Saturday.

Millersville, Pa. June 6, 1892
It was decided that ladies would not be allowed to buy ice cream at Mr. Stump’s on Sunday.

Millersville, Pa. July 1, 1892
The sociables at the opening of the [literary] societies were thought to be promoters of disorder and lower the tone of the meetings. The running in and out of the societies was thought to be a fruitful source of disorder. It was suggested that instead of opening the doors at the end of each exercise they be opened once each hour or about that time.

1883-1889 Faculty Minutes: Students are not to rise before 4 o’clock A.M.

Below you will find extracts of the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (now known as Millersville University). These extracts are from the volume covering 1883 – 1889. A digitized copy can be found at the Keystone Library Network’s digital collection:


Millersville, Pa, September 20, 1883
Gentlemen are not to use the ladies boardwalk or congregate around their gate.

Students are not to rise before 4 o’clock A.M.

October 18, 1883
A petition from the senior and junior classes was read in which they requested the Faculty to grant them permission to go chestnuting on Frid. next. Request not granted.

November 1, 1883
A number of boys entered Mr. Baetty’s room for the purpose of taking him to the pump to give him a shower bath, but finding him awake they only compelled him to get out of bed and wash his feet…whereupon they began to persuade Mr. B. to get up and wash his feet and one of them poured some water into the basin. Mr. B. protested, but finally after considerable persuasion complied after which the accused withdrew. Mr. Fray, the roommate of Mr. B.,…[b]eing asked if he noticed any offensive smell from Mr. B’s feet he said that he did sometimes, and that he had advised him to get ammonia to prevent it. He did not however object to rooming with him…Not a large number of the students sympathized with the accused…Mr. Westlake said he had made some inquiry as to the necessity of the act and Messrs Felton, Wolfgang, and [?] each testified that they found it exceedingly unpleasant to be near him in that account…

November 6, 1883
Some young men, one of whom is Mr. Watson, spoke on infidelity in the Page Society. The Trustees passed a resolution strictly forbidding the inculcating of any infidel doctrine in the school.

Dr. Higbee writes that no religious test or qualification can be required for admission to a state normal school, yet any student that may be of injury to a school by inveighing against the Bible and against the Christian religion, is abusing the very requirement itself by asserting in such from his own religions test, and he can be disciplined.

November 24, 1883
Miss Lyle announced that the examination of her class in Phys. Geog. would take place next week and this was followed by a rambling discussion concerning examinations, the time for holding them, the manner of conducting them, etc.

February 7, 1884
Mr. Westlake stated that some of the pupils quote some of the teachers as using expressions peculiar to this county and mispronouncing words. Normal teachers be more guarded in their language.
October 10, 1884
Prin. stated that Chas. Warfel and Thaddeus Mellinger entered the ladies parlor the other evening while company was there. Mr. Warfel turned down the light and jumped out of the window.

Millersville, January 9, 1885
The prin. stated that complaint had been entered against Mr. Albright for taking articles that do not belong to him. He had an interview with Mr. A. to investigate the matter .Mr. A. first denied having ever taken anything that was not his own, but finally with great reluctance he admitted that he had taken fruit and also a book belonging to Mr. Burg. The book had been taken some months ago and kept in his trunk. Prin. took the book from him and gave it to the owner. The Prin. further stated that a quantity of cigars belonging to one of the students were found in his trunk by Mr. Broll, his roommate. Mr. A. denied that the cigars were in his trunk but finally said if they were there he was unable to explain how they came there. In view of the admitted theft his previous record the principal requested him to withdraw from school.

February 20, 1885
Mr. Randall reported Messrs Harper, and Bacharach were caught trying to unlock the door of the room in which Mr. Westlake and others have goods stored. When asked why they were trying to unlock the door they answered that they thought there were some things in the room to eat.

April 24, 1885
It was suggested that gentlemen be spoken to in regard to lying on the ground in the yard.

Friday September 25, 1885
Mr. Byerly reported that an inappropriate use is being made of the pole in the yard.

Friday, October 2, 1885
The Prin. thought some students were rising too early. It is a rule that students shall not rise earlier than 4 in summer and 4 1/2 in winter.

Friday, January 15, 1886
A communication purporting to be a “message from the senior class to the Faculty” was read but as much as it was impertinent and disrespectful, it was withdrawn by the Principal. It seemed to be the opinion of the faculty that the paper did not correctly represent the sentiment of the class and it was thought best to pass it over as a rather juvenile and foolish performance of which the class would be ashamed. Accordingly no action was taken upon it. The subject of the communication was the refusal of the principal to give the class permission to have a sleigh ride.

Friday, March 5, 1886
The Principal read a libelous and unjust article written by A.S. Hershey, and read in the Page Weekly by Mr. Brown, the editor, reflecting severely on the Faculty. Action deferred.

Friday, March 12, 1886
Mr. Shaub then called up the case of A.S. Hershey and J.J. Brown, which was referred to at the last Faculty meeting. These gentlemen had also been called before the committee and questioned as to their motives in writing and reading the articles, and as to the meaning of the charges and insinuations contained in it. Mr. Brown said that he had suggested the subject to Mr. Hershey, that he sympathized in the main with its purpose, and accepted the responsibility for it. Mr. Hershey said he believed when he wrote the articles that the statements contained in it were true; he admitted that he might have erred in some particulars, and some of the charges were made on hearsay evidence, but he made no retraction of anything, expressed no regret, and though respectful in his manner, he manifested a rebellious and unteachable spirit.

After a careful consideration of the whole subject, the faculty unanimously passed the following resolution:

Whereas Mr. A.S. Hershey wrote for the Page Weekly a false and libelous article entitled “A Faculty Romance: or The Moral Obligations of Normal School Teachers to Students” reflecting unjustly upon the Faculty of the Institution and having a tendency to create a spirit of disorder and insubordination in the school and whereas Mr. J.J. Brown the editor of the paper, read the article at the public meeting of the Page Society held Friday evening, Feb. 26th; and furthermore Whereas the previous named when called before the principal and a committee of the Faculty expressed no regret for their conduct but on the contrary showed the sentiments contained in said article and their full responsibility for the same; Therefore; Resolved, That Mr. A.S. Hershey and Mr. J.J. Brown are notified that hereafter until otherwise ordered they will not be permitted to reenter the school as students.

May 14, 1886
Ladies are not to be allowed to sit or loiter about the spring, nor to go to the spring after the ringing of the signal bell.

Teachers rooming near requested to see that the regulation is complied with.

May 21, 1886
Miss Landis stated that there was reason to believe that ladies and gentlemen meet and converse when out walking.

Friday, June 11, 1886
Mr. O’Donnell and Miss Keesey were reported for holding a privileged conversation at the spring. It was voted that each receive 5 demerits. There was some discussion concerning the congregating of students at the spring, and it was decided that the Chairman should make an announcement concerning the matter to the school.

Mr. Niles was reported for walking and conversing with ladies, and 5 demerits were imposed as the penalty.

Mr. O’Donnell was reported for holding a privileged conversation with ladies in the Nor. Library after having been admonished not to do so. This being the second time he had been reported for the same offence, the Faculty imposed 8 demerits, in addition to those already received.

Mr. J.W. Philips was reported for conversing with Miss Hendricks in library, and it was voted that he be reprimanded by the Pres. Pro tem of the faculty.

Mr. Hartzler reported Julia Smith and Gussie Burger and Messrs Weevil and Frantz had spend a long time together in the chapel before the meeting of the Page Society. No action taken.

Friday, 1st October, 1886
The Principal inquired whether any pupils are homesick. No serious cases are reported.
Those who were suffering from nostalgia some time ago are convalescent.

Wednesday, 5th January, 1887
It was reported that a number of ladies had removed tables and lamps from vacant rooms.

Monday 24th January, 1887
It was reported that Mr. Lyte and Mr. Hinch are weak in their studies.
Mr. Wevill[?] is also weak, but thoughtful.

Tuesday, 15th February, 1887
Mr. Lansinger stated that most of the members of the Faculty met in the Reception Room in Thursday of last week to consider the subject of Boarding and that he had been appointed chairman of a committee to report the proceedings of the meeting to the Faculty at its next regular meeting. He stated that some of the teachers thought that the boarding is better than it was previous to the changes lately made in the Dining Room. And others thought it was not as good. Some teachers thought that the teachers who do not eat oatmeal should have beefsteak for breakfast. He also stated that it was the opinion that the breakfasts and Sunday dinners should be improved and that some believed that the Trustees will give us as good boarding as their means will allow them to do so.

Friday, 25 February, 1887
Mr. Hull was of the opinion that the boarding should be improved in quality and quantity. Better crackers should be bought, etc.

Friday, 18 March, 1887
Miss Gilbert reported that Miss Laura Miller tore up her bed and disarranged the furniture of Miss John’s room. On being spoken to by Miss Gilbert, she confessed that she had done so. She received five demerits for the offence.

Thursday, 14th April, 1887
The Principal was requested to make the following announcements to the school:
Pupils should not lean their heads against the Chapel wall.
Pupils should not study during Opening Exercises.
Pupils should not sit on the ground at this season of the year.
Pupils should not crowd in Recitation Hall.
Pupils should conduct themselves properly at table.
Pupils should not jump in the front yard.
Gentlemen should not use the ladies’ gate.
The “square” should be more quiet.

Friday, 22 April, 1887
It was said that Miss Bertha Donovan still continues her custom of going out alone on Sunday.

Friday 29 April, 1887
The Principal inquired whether Miss Donovan’s going out alone on Sunday constituted an offence. After some discussion, the Principal stated that he would see Miss Donovan about the matter.

September 22, 1887
Messrs Standou, Rhodes, Bowman, Shaffer, and Fry are inclined to misbehave. It was suggested that the teachers keep their eyes on these and give them plenty of work.

October 6, 1887
Mr. Early is either stupid or lazy. It is thought to be the former.

October 13, 1887
Messrs Garrett and Wentz met Misses Campbell and Myers in Shenks Lane by appointment. They were spoken to and seemed penitent.

December 1, 1887
Miss Heisen is reported as being very nervous.

December 19, 1887
The Prin. asked how long it would take Miss Heisen to graduate. It was thought that she would be able to graduate in three years; finishing the junior course in two years. She is not brilliant.

January 2, 1888
Mr. Bitner reported Messrs Heitz, Seiger, Hercheroth, Kline and Garrett went to Mr. Bowman’s room, and after being invited in they began to sing songs and make a noise; then blew out the light put snow in the bed. Mr. Garret stole Mr. Bowman’s pillow retuning it only after being requested by Mr. Bitner. It was done to annoy Mr. Bowman.

January 10, 1888
The Prin. gave the following directions concerning the use of the steam in the classroom:

In turning on the steam, open the steam valve first, and after a short time open the return valve. The return pipe is at the left of the radiator and is smaller then the steam pipe.

In turning off the steam close the return valve first then the steam valve.

In case the radiator does not get warm, open the air valve, which is found at the same end of the radiator as the return pipe.

January 23, 1888
The ladies are not to go skating except with a teacher. No boys are accompany them nor skate with them.

January 23, 1888
The rules for the anniversary will be the same as our former session.
1. Ladies having gentlemen friends visiting them can sit with them by permission.
2. Gentlemen having lady friends visiting them can sit with them without permission.

February 6, 1888
Notes from the Prin:
1. The Teachers should endeavor to give our Summer students Eng[lish] idioms for their German idioms.

March 12, 1888
The Prin. reported that Mr. Sheaffer bought a flask of whiskey from his father’s store in Lanc. which he took without his knowledge. Mr. Sheaffer, Reflogle, Seyler, Warfel, McCulloch, and Simmons drank the whiskey in Mr. Sheaffer’s room. The four gentlemen first named were playing cards and some of them were smoking at the same time. All theses gentlemen signed a paper in harmony with the facts stated above.

The Prin. appointed the following committee to investigate the matter with power to act.

April 4, 1888
The Prin. asked if there is any indication to violating the regulation of the school. None were mentioned except prominading[?] in front of the school. Can the lady’s teachers create a sentiment against this? Should the yard gates be locked at the ringing of the study bell in the evening?

May 29, 1888
There was more noise at the Page Anniversary than usual. The matter was discussed and propriety of getting a policeman was mentioned. No definite conclusion was reached.

September 24. 1888
Mr. Chas. H. Warfel was reported for attending a meeting of the Republicans in Room 4.

September 24. 1888
Look after Miss Putzman. Grace Wiley is said to have said that she cheated her way through her senior year.

November 26, 1888
The music in the societies is not very good. The students may consult the music teachers on the subject.

December 17, 1888
Should we prohibit the ladies from visiting in the village? The question was discussed but no conclusion was reached.

February 4. 1889
A letter from Mr. Upcroft was read in which he states that his daughter has not made any progress since she has been at school. It is the opinion of the Faculty that she has improved very much this term.

March 11, 1889
Health: The general health of the school is good. It was stated that Mr. Horace Styer, one of our day students from Lancaster died this morning, from hemorrhage. He was present at school up to Tuesday of last week. His division selected four of their number to attend the funeral and the Page Society two. Some members of the division requested the Prin. to permit them to attend the funeral in a body. After some consideration it was thought best not to grant the request. On motion of Mr. Hull the number of representatives from the class was increased to six and the division excused from duty on Thursday from noon, the day of the funeral.

The school will bear half of the expenses of the representatives. Mr. Styer was a very earnest and faithful student; Every teacher speaks of him in the highest terms.

March 11, 1889
The matter of holding examinations was discussed and the following suggestions made:
1. In order to prevent cheating on examinations, one should endeavor to cultivate a high tone of morals.
2. The teacher should be watchful.
3. Do not make the examinations too hard.
4. Do not make the examinations too long.

April 4, 1889
Mr. J.H. Wilson is allowed to enter a few classes and not recite on account of an impediment in his speech. Teachers will give him careful attention.

Millersville, Pa, April 11, 1889
Mr. Lansinger stated that some of the students were out boating on Sunday. The Prin. will announce that there is to be no boating on Sunday.

The Prin. will also announce that there is to be no lawn tennis or baseball played until after 3.30 P.M.

Mrs. Monroe will give her entertainments in the chapel on Friday and Saturday evenings, April 19 and 20. Her lecture on “Life in Washington” and “The Civil War” were selected.

Millersville, May 13, 1889
Mr. Mumma had a tooth extracted at Dr. Hiestand’s office. But by some accident it slipped from the forceps and went down the wind pipe. The accident was regarded by the physicians serious enough to send him to the University at Phila. where he is at present.

Millersville, Pa, May 20, 1889
Mr. Brubaker received a letter from Mr. Mumma in which he states that he is improving and will be able walk around in three or four days. It is not known what has become of the tooth.

Millersville, May 13, 1889
Mr. Harvey Smith received 5 demerits for annoying the watchman.

Millersville, Pa, May 27, 1889
Conduct – Harvey Smith declares he did not halloo at the watchman. A motion was made by Miss Gilbert and seconded by Miss Landis to excuse Mr. Smith’s demerits for the above offense. The motion was lost.

Millersville, Pa, May 20, 1889
It was thought that Miss Mary J. Miller was dissatisfied with her classification and left school for this reason. She stated that she was able to pass Mental Arith. Geo .and Ortho. but could not do so because she was not in passing classes. It was found on inquiry that she was in passing classes of all the above studies.

Mr. H.S. Thatcher left school for not having, as he stated, equal privileges with other students in Latin and Eng. Grammar. There is no foundation for the accusation, and he is therefore thought to have withdrawn from school without sufficient excuse.

June 10, 1889
The senior class asked to remain until July 5th in order to hold a class picnic. The matter was carefully considered and the prevailing sentiment was against granting the request.

June 10, 1889
It was reported that some of the students were throwing stones, sticks etc. through the halls; and Mr. Ricker was detected in doing it. After some consultation Mr. Bitner moved that Mr. Ricker be suspended. The matter was referred to Messrs Byerly, Hull and Bitner as a committee to investigate the charge and report to the Prin.

8.30 P.M. June 10, 1889
The committee consisting of Messrs Byerly, Hull and Bitner to investigate the charge against Mr. Ricker met in the office.

Mr. J.S. Ricker was called in and the charge against him was read by the secretary. Mr. Ricker said he was guilty of the misdemeanor but was induced to do it by Mr. Markle.
He did it but once; was very sorry that it occurred and did not want his parents to know it.

The matter was very carefully considered in the presence of the Prin. and the following punishment recommended: Mr. Ricker be obliged to board out of the building during the remainder of the term and not be allowed to enter the gentlemen’s building under penalty of suspension. We further request the Prin. to state to the school that any one hereafter detected in a similar misdemeanor will not be dealt with so leniently.

June 13, 1889
The Prin. stated that Mr. Hartzler had detected some of the [?] making a noise in the front yard.
Messrs Shepp and Bartley were on a tree[?] singing songs after the last retiring bell, which was a violation of the announcement made by the Prin. in the morning of open exercises. The Prin. investigated the matter and Mr. Bartley confessed that he was on the tree[?], but Mr. Shepp would not say that he was or was not up the tree[?].

Mr. Byerly moved that the boys who were caught on the tree[?] be suspended.

June 20, 1889
The Prin. stated that some boxes, a chair and other objects were thrown through the hall.

It is known that Messrs Kline, Baker, and Lerch were engaged in the matter. The statement made by these gentlemen will be found in the Prin’s black book.
The facts concisely stated are as follows:
Mr. Baker brought a box from the garret[?] after the last retiring bell and later in the evening threw it out of the window into the square. Messrs Kline and Lerch brought a box from the garret about the same time. Mr. Kline brought a chair from the same place[?]. Messrs Lerch and Baker admitted the facts at once. Mr. Kline at first denied most of the charge against him but finally confessed the whole matter to Messrs Hull and Sanford.

The committee thought theses gentlemen deserved suspension. Mr. Lerch having withdrew from school no action was taken in his case. Mr. Baker’s general good conduct and Mr. Kline’s frankness with some members of the committee led them to believe that if friends of these students should vouch for their deportment they [sic] punishment would be changed.

1871-1878 Faculty minutes: Orphan girls are not to have any more stationary unless they pay cash for it

For the past several years, the Special Collections department at the McNairy Library and Learning Forum has been digitizing the faculty meeting minutes of the Pennsylvania State Normal School of the Second District (the earlist manifestation of the Millersville University of Pennsylvania).

The project encompasses the faculty minutes from 1871 to the 1950s.

Recently, the first volume was published online in the Keystone Library Network digital collection: http://digital.klnpa.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/mvsminutes/id/295/rec/1. [When you navigate to that site, please note that the collection provides a transcription for each page. To access the transcription, the user can either click on the “Text” tab or choose the “View Image & Text” button.]

Covering the years from 1871 to 1878, the minutes provide a snapshot of the concerns and issues related to an early co-educational school. Recurring topics include individualized reports on student progress, regulations, absences, health, the deportment of students, table manners, and the interaction between the sexes (which is strictly regulated).

Below you will find extracts from the minutes of 1871-78. I chose the following passages in order to illustrate not only the mores and concerns of the faculty at that time but also to illustrate the expressive language employed by the participants.

Jan. 10, 1873
Mr. Book sent out of the building for dancing in his room.

Apr. 17, 1873
See that pupils when explaining a prob. on the board assume a graceful posture and that the pointer be held in the hand next the board.

Apr. 27, 1873
Quite a lengthy discussion was entered into on the subject of pronunciation. It was agreed that the German pupils should be corrected.

Jan. 16, 1874
[Suggestion for teachers] To avoid giving too much matter outside of the text-book; the teacher should crystallize his thoughts, put them upon the board, and require their pupils to copy them.

Feb. 26, 1874
Mr. Read expelled for the reason that he accompanied Miss Mattie Barkley to Lancaster after being told not to.

November 27, 1874
It was agreed that the fol. Dining room regulations should be announced:
1. Sections. These shall consist of eight persons except at the head of the table where the no. shall be 9. Pies shall be dis. among the no. 6.
2. Carving. The meat shall be cut in thin slices and across the grain.
3. Passing Things. Each mem of a div. shall be helped to meat before anything else is passed to them. Ladies helped first. When any dish is asked for it shall be passed directly by the person most convenient to it.
4. Bread. When the crusts of bread have not been taken off before bringing it to table, the person passing it shall remove them to the side of the bread on the plate.

Feb. 26, 1875
No spitting on the floor to be allowed.

Apr. 12, 1875
No whispering by teachers or pupils from the time the first signal bell rings until all the pupils are out of the dining room.

Apr. 22, 1875
The chair suggested that the teachers assist him in creating a sentiment against defacing the prop. of the school.

June 3, 1875
[T]eachers having charge of halls should make it a point to visit all their pupils who may need their cheering presence.

June 10, 1875
The pres further remarked that he had ascertained that Misses M. Ball and Updike and Messrs Hayemen and Lark had been having secret meetings at various hours during the day and evening.
Pun[ishment]. The two gentlemen and Miss Updike expelled and Miss Ball on account of her confession recommended to leave school not to return again.

October 28, 1875
The green grocers not permitted to leave the yard after tea without permission.

Feb. 4, 1876
New Regulations. Students are not to shovel sugar into their cups nor use more than 4 teaspoonfuls. Molasses mugs to be kept in saucers when not in use.

Mar. 17, 1876
Miss Hartman stated that some days ago she found Mr. Kauffman and Miss Brice locked in Mrs. Clark’s room…The secretary read a pledge signed by Mr. Kauffman and Miss Brice which was, to effect that if they again violated any of the important regulations of the institution they would be expelled…After some remarks by several mems of the faculty Mr. Westlake moved that Mr. Kauffman and Miss Brice be expelled. The motion was seconded put and unanimously carried…
June 21, 1877
A letter from Mrs. Becca Kaffman [aka, Miss Brice, having since married Mr. Kauffman] was read by the pres. She states that she is trying for a position in the West and…she also asks the pres. to write her a recommendation in which he is not to speak of her repeated and grave violations of the regulations of the institution. The pres. said he would assist her as much as he could without making any sacrifices of principles.

Apr. 27, 1876
No jumping to be done in the front yard.

September 21, 1876
That [the teachers] should take occasion now and then to speak words of kindness and encouragement to the soldiers orphans under our charge and thus make them feel happy and contented.

December 7, 1876
The chair suggested that when the teachers are absent from their classes that they leave them in charge of some competent person…Pupils should clean the boards by moving the erasers downwards.

Jan. 4, 1877
Orphan girls are not to have any more stationary unless they pay cash for it.

Mar. 21, 1877
Students not to get up until 4 o’clock AM.
No jumping in the front yard.

Apr. 26, 1877
Mr. Behimer remarked that some of the students play croquette in Locust Groves. They must discontinue.

May 17, 1877
No carrying of water during study hours.

May 31, 1877
Some of the gentlemen at the lower tables take the ice off of the butter and put it in their water.

October 18, 187[7]
Holiday to gather chestnuts to be restricted to the senior class. Ladies not to go out after tea without special permission. Clock to be turned back ten minutes so as to be with railroad time.


Millersville State Normal School, Millersville, Pa. c1921. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 05 Nov. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007661482/>.

[Nathan Pease is an adjunct Research Librarian at the McNairy Library and Learning Forum on the campus of Millersville University. In his spare time, Mr. Pease digitizes out-of-print vinyl records and plays “European board games” such as Targi, Pandemic, Dominion, among others. He also volunteers and works part-time at LancasterHistory.Org, also known as the Lancaster County Historical Society.]

Wasn’t Columbus a “Discovery Service”?

I know that most people think they know what the word “science” means. But if you ask a person for a definition of the word “science”, the result will most likely make astrology a “science”. Since astrology is definitely not a science, one realizes that we humans often employ words and terms for which we don’t have a complete understanding.

It is my feeling that in the library world, “discovery service” is one such term. I use it, and I talk to students about our “discovery service”; but my general feeling is that we all agree not to ask what the heck that really means.

So this week I’m gonna dissect the McNairy Library website a little in order to provide some insight into our “discovery service”.

The “Mouth” of the discovery service

The most visible part of the “discovery service” is the search box that is prominently displayed on our website:

The mouth of the discovery service in the red circle

The front end of the discovery service looks like Google. Many users use the discovery service like Google, asking it questions. They put entire sentences into the discovery service like “What is the Uncertainty Reduction Theory?” This is not a good idea. [Clarification: The Uncertainty Reduction Theory is a good idea, but entering entire sentences into an academic discovery service usually is not.]

This type of searching is called “natural language” searching. It’s as if you were asking someone a question. It works for Google, because Google employs “natural language processing” for its website. Most academic discovery services do not employ “natural language processing” [That may change in the future, but for the present: be here now.]

Google is like a car meant for the average consumer. You can put any type of gasoline into it; you can put any type of oil into it; you can install cheap spark plugs: it will probably still run.

But academic discovery services are like Ferraris. They’re not meant for the average consumer. You have to use high octane gasoline; you have to use specific oil types; you have to use spark plugs that are miniature light-sabers. If you want the performance of a Ferrari, you have to deal with the fact that there are certain things you need to do. Academic discovery services are like Ferraris: If you want true performance, you gotta bump up your game!

The “Back end” of the discovery service: Search results

When using the discovery service on the McNairy Library website, just enter the terms that are important, in our case: Uncertainty Reduction Theory [which, by the way, is a concept used in Communications studies]. When you perform a search for uncertainty reduction theory, you get the following 10,700 results:

Results of search without quotation marks

Let’s take a look at three things that the discovery service provides here, on the back end:

1- Your search terms are formatted in bold lettering in the search results. This allows you to quickly scan the records and decide if the search results are relevant;

2-  There is a “Research Starter” at the top of the search results. For many topics, the discovery service provides encyclopedia articles that provide a quick overview of the topic as well as other resources to pursue.

3- There are 10,700 items in your search results.

10,700 items are way too many to look through.

When using most discovery services (even Google), put quotation marks around concepts. In our case, the search for “uncertainty reduction theory” results in 768 records:

Getting better results using quotation marks for concepts

By using quotation marks around the three-word concept, we were able to get better targeted search results from the discovery service. In fact, we weeded out 10,000 items.

Still, 768 results are still too many to look through. We need to limit our results. In the left hand column of the search results, there are many different “limiters” that we can apply:

Full-text and Scholarly (peer reviewed) limiters applied

In the image above, you can see that by limiting the results to “Full Text” and “Scholarly (Peer Reviewed)”, we have shaved off 300 search results from our list.

If you look in the “Subject” section of the left column*, you will see that there is an option for “uncertainty reduction theory (communication) (247)”. If you choose that option, you limit your search results to 247 items that have been assigned the “uncertainty reduction theory (communication)” subject heading.

By applying the limiters in the left hand column, the user can get better targeted results.

My suggestions for applying limiters

1- If you’re looking for books in the library -> “Catalog only” limiter- This limits your results to books that the library has in its collection.

2- If you’re looking for digital articles that you can access right away -> “Full Text” limiter- This limits your results to resources that you can access right away, i.e. without using the “Request It” links.

3- If your professor says that your sources have to be “peer reviewed”, “scholarly”, or “from an academic journal” ->”Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals”. Use this in conjunction with the “Full Text” limiter for quick satisfaction.

4- If your professor says that your sources have to be within a certain time period -> “Publication Date” limiter.

5- If you feel that your topic is too broad -> Use the “Subject” section. Click on the “Show more” link in that section to see all sub-topics. Choose the sub-topics and then click the “Update” button. When you get those results, you can do this again. I find that as you drill down into sub-topics, new sub-topics will appear.

The “Guts” of the discovery service: Between the “Mouth” and the “Back-end”

Users often wonder why the discovery service provides them with resources that the library doesn’t have. That’s because the discovery service does not limit itself to items in the library collection, the idea being that the user should be given as much information about what is available on a topic, whether the library has those resources or not [For those users who only want to see what’s in the library’s collection, they should access the library catalog: Go to the library’s webpage at www.library.millersville.edu> Click on “Books, eBooks, and Video”> Click on “Millersville University Library Catalog”].

The “guts” of a discovery service includes records from many different collections and resources. Basically, the discovery service collects the data from most of the databases in our collection (to see the numerous databases available in the McNairy Library, go to our database list at http://www.library.millersville.edu/libguides/all-databases-title) and uses that collection of data as the basis for “discovery”. This vast trove of information from many different sources, each with its own unique data structure, is squished together, hidden behind the simple, “Google-like” search box that seems to say, “This is all so simple.”

And then, once a search is initiated, not only does it have to find the records that match, it also then has to search for the PDF files or the URLs that will take the user to the resources that the library has access to. The whole thing is quite a production. For those of us who used libraries before the “Digital Age”, we find it to be miraculous.

If you need help using the “discovery service”, please feel free to contact me at nathan.pease@millersville.edu. Or you can use the library’s “Ask a librarian” service at http://www.library.millersville.edu/tools-services/ask-librarian.


*Full disclosure statement: Although I will often refer to all the sections in the left-hand column as “limiters”, I should tell you that within this discovery service only the “Limit to” section contains official “limiters”. All other sections in the left-hand column are “facets”.


Lee, Russell. Holstein cow at Casa Grande Valley Farms. Pinal County, Arizona. She yielded 497 pounds of butterfat in 370 days. On test 77 cows of the Casa Grande Farm yielded an average of 386 pounds of butter fat in 365 days. This was the highest in the state for that many cows. 1940. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 23 Oct. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa2000017645/PP/>.

[Nathan Pease is an adjunct Research Librarian at the McNairy Library and Learning Forum on the campus of Millersville University. In his spare time, Mr. Pease digitizes out-of-print vinyl records and plays “European board games” such as Targi, Pandemic, Dominion, among others. He also volunteers and works part-time at LancasterHistory.Org, also known as the Lancaster County Historical Society.]